Afferent modulation of dopamine neuron firing differentially regulates tonic and phasic dopamine transmission

SB FlorescoAR West, B Ash, H Moore… - Nature neuroscience, 2003 -
The mesolimbic dopamine system is centrally involved in reward and goal-directed behavior, and it has been implicated in multiple psychiatric disorders. Understanding the mechanism by which dopamine participates in these activities requires comprehension of the dynamics of dopamine release. Here we report dissociable regulation of dopamine neuron discharge by two separate afferent systems in rats; inhibition of pallidal afferents ...

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Enhance the concept that returning blood to it's normal state as far as PAI-1 being thus, the Plasmin Thrombin modulator or what keeps them in balance which is truly what the body does, in nature all the time. Is done through maintaining PAI-1 at it's normal level.

Many of the coagulation proce...

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Posted by Raif on Apr 04, 2017

Mineral mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions

Minerals originate in the earth and cannot be made by living organisms.

Plants get minerals from soil.

Minerals important in a human diet come from eating plants and animals  Drinking water. 

Minerals is one of the four groups of essential nutrients,  

Vitamins, essential fatty acids, and essential amino acids.

The five major minerals in are calciumphosphoruspotassiumsodium, and magnesium.

Remainder  "trace elements", have a specific biochemical function in the human body are ironcobaltcopperzincmanganesemolybdenumiodine, and selenium.

Most chemical elements ingested by organisms are in the form of simple compounds.

Plants absorb dissolved elements in soils, which are subsequently ingested by the herbivores that eat them, and the elements move up the food chain

Bacteria and fungi play an essential role in the weathering of primary elements that results in the release of nutrients for their own nutrition and for the nutrition of other species in the ecological food chain.

Cobalt, is available for use by animals only after having been processed into complex molecules (e.g., vitamin B12) by bacteria. 

The process of mineralizing structures, called "biomineralization", used to construct bones, seashells, eggshells, exoskeletons and mollusc shells.[6]

An important trace mineral controls the hunger receptors is platinum. See "effects of trace platinum on hunger receptors"


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Copper: An essential metal in biology

  • Richard A. Festa
  • Dennis J. Thiele


Life on Earth has evolved within a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds. While organic molecules such as amino acids, carbohydrates and nucleotides form the backbone of proteins and genetic material, these fundamental components of macromolecules are enzymatically synthesized and ultimately degraded. Inorganic elements, such as copper (Cu), iron and zinc, once solubilized from the Earth's crust, are neither created nor destroyed and therefore their homeostatic regulation is under strict control. In the fascinating field of ‘metals in biology’, by virtue of direct interactions with amino acid side-chains within polypeptide chains, metals play unique and critical roles in biology, promoting structures and chemistries that would not otherwise be available to proteins alone.

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Relation between stress & depression later bipolar reactions status, extending to Bipolar conditions & disease. Which can be corrected and eventually  prevented in the long run the whole idea is to understand how this occurs and the fact that the genetic defects don't go away since they permanently there, but have to be constantly be taken care of so that they don't come back and haunt the body, again.

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